Electricity Sector

Eswatini's electricity is mainly supplied by the Eswatini Electricity Company ("EEC") established in terms of section 3 of the Eswatini Electricity Company Act, 2007 (Act No. 1 of 2007) ("EEC Act"). EEC is the successor to the Eswatini Electricity Board ("EEB") which was established in terms of the Electricity Act, 1963 (Act No. 10 of 1963). The Electricity Act, 2007 (Act No. 3 of 2007) repealed the Electricity Act, 1963. In terms of the EEC Act, EEC is supposed to operate under a licence issued by the Eswatini Energy Regulatory Authority ("ESERA") established in terms of the Energy Regulatory Act, 2007 (Act No. 2 of 2007) ("ER Act").

The electricity sector is dominated by EEC undertaking power generation, importation, transmission, distribution and supply. Other key players include co-generators from the sugar industry namely Ubombo Sugar limited (USL) and the Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation (RSSC) which use bagasse and wood chips as fuel. USL has an installed capacity of 41.5 MW which is utilised for self-sufficiency and export to SEC. RSSC’s 65.5 MW generation is currently limited to self-consumption. The electricity industry structure and its envisaged transition is as shown below;

electricity generation in Eswatini


System Maximum Demand Recorded: 233MW 2021/22

Highest Maximum Demand Recorded: 245MW 2019/20

Installed Capacity

Eswatini Electricity Company (EEC)  
     Hydro - 60.5 MW
     Solar PV – 10 MW

Ubombo Sugar Limited (USL)
      Thermal – 40.5 MW
      Hydro – 1 MW

Royal Eswatini Sugar Corporation (RSSC)
     Thermal – 65.5 MW

Wundersight Investments
      Solar PV – 0.1 MW

Small Scale Embedded Generation
      Predominantly Solar PV – 17.4 MW

Energy profile 2021/22
     Local Generation – 624.4 GMh
     Imported Power – 901.5 GWh
     Energy Sent Out – 1527 GWh

Electricity Access (2021/22)
     National Electrification Rate – 85%

Power is transmitted through 66kV, 132 kV and 400 kV transmission lines. The 400kV transmission line are owned by the Motraco Transmission Company. EEC has one third interest in the Motraco Transmission Company, registered in Mozambique. Motraco's principal role is the supply of energy to Mozal Aluminium Smelters in Mozambique and the wheeling of electric energy to the Electricidade de Mozambique, Eswatini Electricity Company and Eskom, South Africa.

Eswatini electrification rate of  (85%)

The electricity supply industry in Eswatini has undergone changes both from a policy and regulatory point of view. Issues such as the changing global trends towards liberalised energy markets; security of supply; achieving efficiencies; affordability; and access to electricity, amongst others, have introduced a change in the policy trajectory with regards to how Eswatini as a nation views electricity supply.

Overall, the electricity supply industry in Eswatini can be broadly defined as an industry in transition, informed both by policy imperatives and regulatory reform.